How are Printed Circuit Boards Made?

Printed circuit boards are relatively small boards that house electronic components such as diodes and capacitors. These relatively small boards can perform complex functions at a rapid pace. PCBs have many applications ranging from household electronic appliances such as coffee makers to military-grade, high-performance, sensitive equipment such as missile guidance systems and satellite systems—all these in one small board.

To perform all these functions, a proper PCB assembly process has to be followed. This will minimize errors and defects that can compromise the sensitive functions of the electronic product. The different processes involved include the following:

Through-hole Process

pcbnetThe through-hole method is the most commonly used PCB assembly technique. The leads of the components are placed on the surface of the circuit board, then soldered using the wave soldering process.

The circuit components are equipped with long leads. These leads are inserted into plated through holes on the printed circuit board surface. Once through, the component is pulled further to flush it onto the surface of the PCB. Then, a soldering iron and a solder wire or bar is used to solder the component in place. Soldering is done on the connection pads located at the bottom surface of the printed circuit board.

Most hobbyists and manually-manufactured PCBs use this technology. Reworking is much easier with the through-hole process. This process is removing and replacing defective or errant components. The solder is removed from the connection joint. The component is then pulled out of the board and replaced with another one.

SMT (Surface Mounting Technology)

In the surface mount technology, circuit components are placed on connection pads found on the surface of the printed board circuit. Solder paste is placed on the connection pads before the components are mounted. This way, a good and stable connection is established. Next, the circuit board is placed in a reflow furnace. This step is necessary to melt the solder within the solder paste. The melting process creates the mechanical bond, as well as the electrical connection between the pads on the circuit board and the leads of the circuit components.

After this, the test process follows. The PCB assembly is placed into a fixture, where electrical power is passed through the entire circuit. This will turn the assembly into a live board. This live board is placed into an ESS chamber, or environmental stress system. The chamber subjects the circuit board to several cycles of high and low temperatures. The aim of this step is to test if any failures will arise in the board. That is, to determine if the assembly is able to withstand varying temperatures that may occur during actual use of the end-use product. Should any failures occur, analysis procedures will be initiated.

Most of the steps involved in SMT is performed by machines. The PCB design is loaded into the computer and the machine is left to follow the instructions in the design.

The defective board will be analyzed, looking for the source of the failure, such as inadequate or too much solder, inaccurately placed components, incorrect components specifications, etc.

Whatever process is utilized in PCB assembly, careful attention to detail and proper execution of the steps involved are important. PCBs perform critical function, whether in low-end consumer type of electronics or for sensitive instruments used in military and critical laboratory and medical applications. It is important that each component is able to withstand the rigors of function of the end use products. That is, the components should be able to withstand temperature changes, length of use and other stresses. These boards should also be fire retardant to reduce the incidence of electrical fires which can spell disaster to users.

Proper Use of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

It is known that human chorionic gonadotropin, better known as HCG, is a hormone produced in the placenta of a pregnant woman. It supports the normal development of the embryo inside the mother’s womb. It also functions in releasing the egg during ovulation. Men are also treated with HCG in order to increase their sperm count. It can cause normal sexual development by releasing testosterone from the testes.

To treat infertility in both men and women, HCG is given as an injection in the skin or in the muscle. It is advised that this procedure be done by a physician or a healthcare expert to avoid any infection or complication. If the hormone is injected in the wrong place then side effects (such as blood clots, numbness, and severe headache) could be triggered. One should immediately consult a doctor if any of those symptoms manifest. In some cases, women experience Ovarian Hyper stimulation Syndrome or OHSS. This happens when hormones are excessively being produced, causing the ovary to be swollen. Swollen ovaries can cause excessive weight gain, shortness of breath, and vomiting.

normal developmentIn order to prevent complications in using HCG, men and women are advised to follow guidelines in the proper way of injecting it. Also, before using HCG, it is important to know if one has any allergic reactions. A doctor must first be consulted if a person has a disease like ovarian cyst, epilepsy, cancer, or any heart- and kidney-related problems. Using HCG under such circumstances can cause complications instead of bringing benefits. If one is already pregnant, then there is no need to take in the hormone since it can cause birth defects.

The human chorionic gonadotropin hormone can be self-injected if it is to be used on a regular basis. Doctors can prescribe the right amount and the number of times that it needs to be injected. Through this method, disposable needles are to be used only once and should be discarded in a puncture-proof container. Different brands of HCG are available in the pharmacy. Some are in powder form that needs to be mixed with a separate liquid. If this is to be used, the right amount of powder and liquid should be taken note of to avoid overdose. The instructions are usually included in the kit. If there are any changes in color, then the mixture should immediately be discarded. Unmixed HCG formulas should be stored in room temperature, keeping it away from both moisture and heat. Mixed formulas are to be kept in the refrigerator to avoid contamination.

A person using HCG injections should not miss a dose as prescribed by the doctor. Overdose is not expected to result in any life threatening situation, but it is still important to follow the dosage that was recommended.

There are a lot of approaches in taking HCG. Still, a 6-week long therapy of HCG treatment is most commonly advised. It can also be as long as a one year therapy – it all depends on the prescription of the doctor. Its dosage ranges from 500-1,000 IU of HCG, taken three times weekly for a period of three weeks. For long-term therapy, higher dosages are administered to the patient. These are just some of the usual methods that are used to treat infertility. It can always change depending on the medical condition and history of the patient.

Harmful effects of using human chorionic gonadotropin injections and medications can be prevented as long as one follows the correct dosage. It should always be accompanied by a healthy diet and regular exercise for the sake of maintaining a fit and healthy body.

Original SEO Post Mechanics

SEO or search engine optimization affects the visibility of a webpage or site in a search engine’s search results. It helps draw more visitors to the website. The higher a website is in a search engine’s search results, the more frequent that website would be visited. Search engine optimization spans more than just web results; it also covers image results, video results, local results, and news results. Optimizing an original SEO post would involve updating its content, HTML, and other methods. Analytics could also be set up to help in studying SEO data. An original SEO post on a website helps in increasing the chances that that site or post itself will be featured in a search engine. Internet marketing strategists study how the search engines work, the search terms that people input, and what search engines are more preferred by the people. This information helps in determining the strategy that will be used to optimize a website or nyseoexplode.com to help it be shown in the results of a search.

The popular search engines like Yahoo!, Bing, and Google use what is known as web crawlers to look for pages for their search results. Each of the search engine companies has their own algorithm in determining what shows up in their search results. The web crawlers take a look at a number of factors when scanning a website. Not every website or web page is indexed by the search engines.

Web crawlers may run into undesirable content when scanning web pages, so webmasters direct them not to scan certain directories. The owner of an original SEO post may also choose to exclude their page from being scanned by the web crawlers. Some pages that are excluded from web crawlers are login specific pages and user specific content.

nyseoexplodeA number of things can be done to help increase the standing of a web page in the search results. One of them is by cross linking, or providing links between pages of the same website. Also, having content that includes keyword phrases that are commonly searched also helps in drawing visitors. Content that is updated often will also lead the web crawlers to frequently come back.

There are white hat and black hat SEO techniques that are done that helps in getting indexed. A white hat SEO technique is when it abides by a search engine’s rules and involves no trickery. It is about making sure that the content that a search engine will index is the same content that people will see. It is also about creating content that is for the people, and not just for the purpose of showing up in a search engine’s search results.

On the other hand, black hat techniques involve trying to increase a website’s rankings with methods that are looked down upon by search engines. Examples would be using hidden texts, or redirecting to a different page depending on if the page is being asked for by a person or a search engine. This technique is called cloaking. Websites that are discovered to have used black hat techniques are penalized either by a decrease in rankings or taking out the website altogether from a search engine’s database.

As a marketing strategy, SEO is not suitable for every website. It may produce a return on investment, but search engines’ algorithms change every now and then so there are no guarantees. If a business heavily relies on search engine traffic, it can amass huge losses once the search engine stops referring visitors to their site. Other marketing strategies such as pay per click campaigns would be more effective.